Associate Editor Wendy Warr starts by interviewing Sandy Farmer of Boehringer Ingelheim. There are many insights and tips here, and I strongly recommend it for a view of how fragment-based approaches are practiced at one large company. A few quotes give a sense of the flavor.
On corporate environment:
In most cases, the difference between success and failure has little to do with the process and supporting technologies (they work!), but rather much more to do with the organizational structure to support FBDD and the organizational mindset to accept the different risk profile and resource model behind FBDD.On success rates:
We have found that FBDD has truly failed in only 2-3 targets out of over a dozen or so.On cost:
FBDD must be viewed as an investment opportunity, not a manufacturing process. And the business decisions surrounding FBDD should factor that in. FBDD is more about the opportunity cost (of not doing it) than the “run” cost (of doing it).On expertise:
Successful FBDD still requires a strong gut feeling.On small companies:
In the end, FBDD will always have a lower barrier to entry than HTS for a small company wanting to get into the drug-discovery space.There’s a lot of other really great content in the issue, much of which has been covered in previous posts on fragment library design, biolayer interferometry, LLEAT, and companies doing FBLD. The other articles are described briefly below.
The key to success for such companies is to identify or construct some technology platform.
Jean-Louis Reymond and colleagues have two articles for mining chemical structures, one analyzing their enumerated set of all compounds having up to 13 heavy atoms (GDB-13), the other focused on visualizing chemical space covered by molecules in PubChem. They have also put up a free web-based search tool (available here) for mining these databases.
Roland Bürli and colleagues at BioFocus describe their fragment library and its application to discover fragment hits against the kinase p38alpha. A range of techniques are used, with reasonably good correlation between them.
Finally, M. Catherine Johnson and colleagues present work they did at Pfizer on the anticancer target PDK1 (see here and here for other fragment-based approaches to this kinase). NMR screening provided a number of different fragment hits that were used to mine the corporate compound collection for more potent analogs, and crystallography-guided parallel chemistry ultimately led to low micromolar inhibitors.