As we mentioned last week, July is bromodomain month at Practical Fragments. Today we’ll start by looking at two closely related bromodomains, one found in cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CBP) and another from adenoviral E1A binding protein of 300 kDa (EP300). Both proteins have been implicated in a variety of diseases, particularly cancer, so a chemical probe would be very valuable.
Alexander Taylor and collaborators at Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Genentech, and WuXi, describe such a probe in a recent paper in ACS Med. Chem. Lett. The researchers screened about 2000 fragments in a thermal shift assay using 0.8 mM of each fragment. Compounds that increased the melting temperature of the CBP bromodomain by at least 1° C were validated first by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and then by 15N HSQC NMR, ITC, and X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 was one of the more attractive hits, in particular because it was considerably less active against BRD4, whose inhibition causes all sorts of changes to cells.
Crystallography of the racemic compound clearly showed that only one of the enantiomers bound, and this was confirmed in functional assays when both enantiomers were tested separately. The active enantiomer makes some of the same interactions typical of all bromodomains with the natural ligand (N-acetylated lysine). Fragment growing was attempted off the aromatic ring, and although several vectors were tolerated, most decreased selectivity against BRD4. However, close examination of the structures revealed a promising vector that led to compound 14, with good selectivity against BRD4. Further optimization ultimately led to CPI-637, with low nanomolar activity against both CBP and EP300 as well as good cell-based activity. Crystallography revealed that this compound binds in a similar manner as the initial fragment.
The selectivity of CPI-637 against other bromodomains is also good (> 700-fold less active against BRD4), though it does hit BRD9 with sub-micromolar activity. Just as with the initial fragment, the opposite enantiomer of CPI-637 is considerably less active. Although no pharmacokinetic data are provided, at the very least this should be a useful probe for cell-based studies.
Switching gears to another aspect of CBP, the multidomain protein p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) has a bromodomain that may bind to CBP, though the biology is not entirely clear. PCAF is known to bind an acetylated HIV protein, and has been proposed as a target for AIDS. Obviously this is another opportunity for a chemical probe! The first steps are reported in a paper by Stefan Knapp and collaborators at Goethe University Frankfurt, University of Oxford, Leiden University, ZoBio, and University of Cambridge, published in J. Med. Chem (and open-access).
The researchers screened two separate fragment libraries using either thermal shift assays (at 1 mM fragment) or TINS. Hits were confirmed using SPR and crystallography, resulting in seven structures. As expected, all the fragments bound at the site where N-acetylated lysine normally binds. The PCAF bromodomain appears to be quite rigid, with little movement in structures with the different bound fragments. A few elaborated molecules were tested, with the best showing low micromolar affinity as assessed by ITC; crystal structures with these molecules are also reported and deposited in the protein data bank. It will be fun to see whether their potency can be improved.
We’ll have another post on bromodomains next week, but first stay tuned later this week for an updated list of fragment-derived drugs that have entered the clinic.